Asia Educational Academy

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Grammar
The words of English Language are classified as “Parts of the Speech” and are named according to their functions. This means that every word, depending on its use, falls into one of the 9 categories:-

1. The Article                                                                                  There are 3 articles in English Language. They are aanthe

2. The Noun                                                                                    A noun is the name of a person, animal, place or thing, e.g. boydog, house or  book.

3. The Verb                                                                                     A verb may be said to be a “doing” word e.g. eat, sing, sleep, play.

4. The Pronoun                                                                               A pronoun takes the place of a noun, e.g. he, she, it, they, we.

5. The Adjective                                                                              An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun, e.g.beautiful, kind, happy.

6. The Adverb                                                                                 An adverb generally modifies a verb, e.g. here, suddenly, timidly.

7. The Preposition                                                                          A preposition shows the relation between one thing and another e.g. on, against, for.

8. The Conjunction                                                                         A conjunction is a word used for joining words and clauses together e.g. but, and.

9The Exclamation or Interjection                                                  An exclamation or interjection expresses sudden emotion e.g. Stop! Attention!

List of Tenses
 Tense means time and there are three times at which an action can take place i.e. Past, Present and Future Tense. They are further divided to show the continuousness and also the time of the action.

                                    Past Tense                      Present Tense                 Future Tense

 Simple

 I went

 I go

 I will go

 Continuous

 I was going

 I am going

 I will be going

 Perfect

 I had gone

 I have gone

 I will have gone

 Perfect Continuous

 I had been going

 I have been going

 I will have been going

 

 

 
Glossary of English Grammar Terms
 Active Voice

In the active voice, the subject of the verb does the action (eg They killed the President). See also Passive Voice.

Adjective
A word like big, red, easy, French etc. An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.

Adverb
A word like slowly, quietly, well, often etc. An adverb modifies a verb.

Article
The "indefinite" articles area and an. The "definite article" is the.

Auxiliary Verb
A verb that is used with a main verb. Bedo and have are auxiliary verbs. Canmaymust etc are modal auxiliary verbs.

Clause
A group of words containing a subject and its verb (for example: It was late when he arrived).

Conjunction
A word used to connect words, phrases and clauses (for example: andbutif).

Infinitive
The basic form of a verb as in to work or work.

Interjection
An exclamation inserted into an utterance without grammatical connection (for example: oh!ah!ouch!,well!).

Modal Verb
An auxiliary verb like canmaymust etc that modifies the main verb and expresses possibility, probability etc. It is also called "modal auxiliary verb".

Noun
A word like tabledogteacherAmerica etc. A noun is the name of an object, concept, person or place. A "concrete noun" is something you can see or touch like a person or car. An "abstract noun" is something that you cannot see or touch like a decision or happiness. A "countable noun" is something that you can count (for example: bottlesongand dollar). An "uncountable noun" is something that you cannot count (for example: watermusicmoney).

Object
In the active voice, a noun or its equivalent that receives the action of the verb. In the passive voice, a noun or its equivalent that does the action of the verb.

Participle
The -ing and -ed forms of verbs. The -ing form is called the "present participle". The -ed form is called the "past participle" (for irregular verbs, this is column 3).

Part Of Speech
One of the eight classes of word in English - noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction and interjection.

Passive Voice
In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb (eg The President was killed). See also Active Voice.

Phrase
A group of words not containing a subject and its verb (eg on the table, the girl in a red dress).

Predicate
Each sentence contains (or implies) two parts: a subject and a predicate. The predicate is what is said about the subject.

Preposition
A word like attoinover etc. Prepositions usually come before a noun and give information about things like time, place and direction.

Pronoun
A word like Imeyouhehimit etc. A pronoun replaces a noun.

Sentence
A group of words that express a thought. A sentence conveys a statement, question, exclamation or command. A sentence contains or implies a subject and a predicate. In simple terms, a sentence must contain a verb and (usually) a subject. A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!).

Subject
Every sentence contains (or implies) two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is the main noun (or equivalent) in a sentence about which something is said.

Tense
The form of a verb that shows us when the action or state happens (past, present or future). Note that the name of a tense is not always a guide to when the action happens. The "present continuous tense", for example, can be used to talk about the present or the future.

Verb
A word like (to) work(to) love(to) begin. A verb describes an action or state.

Vocabulary
 1.      In Malaysian English many words and phrases are used in a way not understood by rest of the world

         Unacceptable local usage

 

There are five alphabets in this word                               There are five letters in this word                 

 WRONG          RIGHT  

send my son to school on my motorcycle                       I take my son to school on my motorcycle

 WRONG           RIGHT

Kindly chop, sign and return these papers                         Kindly stamp, sign and return these papers  

 WRONG          RIGHT

   
  

2.      In Malaysian English many words and expressions that are commonly used  cannot be described as wrong because they cannot be described in any other way.

  

         Acceptable local usage

 

Cooling -  Mangosteens are cooling

Heaty  -   Durians are heaty

Padang  - The padang of the Selangor Club

 

3.      Malaysian usage of words equivalent to UK usage

·        Words used differently in UK

 

My cousin is attached to EON Bank.         (Malaysian usage)                           My cousin works for  EON Bank.               (UK equivalent)

Do you take beef?                                  (Malaysian usage)                           Do you eat beef?                                    (UK equivalent)

Don’t bluff me;                                       (Malaysian usage)                         Don’t tell lies to me                                (UK equivalent)

 

  

 

4.      Some pairs of words are used wrongly because the meanings are confused.

·          Words wrongly used due to semantic confusion

 

Can you borrow me your camera?                                             Can you lend me your camera?

Wrong    Right

I am finding for my pen                                                           I am searching for my pen

Wrong    Right

I am shifting house this Sunday                                               I am moving house this Sunday

Wrong    Right

She asked me to follow her to a movie tonight                           She asked me to accompany her to a movie tonight

Wrong    Right

Don’t drive so quickly                                                          Don’t drive so fast

Wrong    Right

 

  

 

  

5.      Translated idioms – Several idioms used in Malaysian English are actually translations from Malay, Chinese or Tamil and are unknown in British English

 

Translated Idioms

Standard English

Five - foot way

Pavement

Half-past six

Dim-witted (person)

Half- completed (piece of work)

Make noise

Protest, make a fuss

No head, no tail

Unsystematic, disorganised

Show a sour face

Show intense dislike/displeasure

See first

Think about it

 

6.      Many English words are formed by adding prefixes or suffixes to other words. There is tendency among Malaysians to often invent new words themselves that do not exist in the British English.

        Unacceptable derivations

 

 The impatient driver horned at the children                                                  The impatient driver sounded his horn at the children

 Wrong            Right

 A lot of time is wasted by staff memoing each other                                        A lot of time is wasted by staff sending memos to each other

 Wrong            Right

  My leg is paining                                                                                       My leg is hurting/painful

 Wrong             Right

 They live in great poorness                                                                        They live in great poverty

 Wrong             Right

 Misunderstandings are usually caused by irresponsible people gossiping  and rumouring                                                                                        Misunderstandings are usually caused by irresponsible people gossiping  and spreading rumours

 Wrong

 Right

 

  

 

   
Fun Stuff- Tongue Twisters

 

 

Which wristwatches are Swiss wristwatches?

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
Where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?

One-One was a racehorse.
Two-Two was one, too.
When One-One won one race,
Two-Two won one, too.

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
Where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?

Picky people pick Peter Pan Peanut-Butter, 'tis the peanut-butter picky people pick.

Idioms
 ace: make an "A" on a test, homework assignment, project, etc.

"Somebody said you aced the test, Dave. That's great!"

 

all right (1): expression of reluctant agreement.

A: "Come to the party with me. Please!"
B: "Oh, all right. I don't want to, but I will."

 

all right (2): fair; not particularly good.

A: "How's your chemistry class?"
B: "It's all right, I guess, but it's not the best class I've ever had."

 

all right (3): unharmed; in satisfactory condition.

A: "You don't look normal. Are you all right?"
B: "Yes, but I have a headache."

 

and then some: and much more besides.

A: "I'd guess your new computer cost about $2,000. "
B: "It cost that much and then some because I also bought extra RAM and VRAM."

 

antsy: restless; impatient and tired of waiting.

"I hope Katy calls soon. Just sitting around and waiting is making me antsy."

 

as easy as pie: very easy.

"I thought you said this was a difficult problem. It isn't. In fact, it's as easy as pie."

 

at the eleventh hour: at the last minute; almost too late.

"Yes, I got the work done in time. I finished it at the eleventh hour, but I wasn't late.

 

be all ears: be eager to hear what someone has to say.

A: "I just got an e-mail message from our old friend Sally."
B: "Tell me what she said. I'm all ears!"

 

be broke: be without money.

"No, I can't lend you ten dollars. I'm completely broke until payday."

 

be fed up with (with someone or something): be out of patience (with someone or something);
be very tired of someone or something.

"Bill, you're too careless with your work. I'm fed up with
apologizing for your mistakes!"

 

be in and out: be at and away from a place during a particular time.

"Could we postpone our meeting until tomorrow? I expect to
be in and out of the office most of the day today."

 

be on the go: be very busy (going from one thing or project to another).

"I'm really tired. I've been on the go all week long."

 

be on the road: be traveling.

"You won't be able to contact me tomorrow because I'll be on the road."

 

be over: be finished; end.

"I can't see you until around 4 o'clock. My meetings won't be over until then."

 

beat: exhausted; very tired (adj.).

"This has been a long day. I'm beat!"

 

beat around the bush: evade an issue; avoid giving a direct answer.

"Quit beating around the bush! If you don't want to go with me, just tell me!"

the bottom line: the most essential information.

"The discussion lasted many hours. The bottom line was that
the XYZ Company isn't for sale."

 

Break a leg! : Good luck!

 

"I understand you have a job interview tomorrow. Break a leg!"

Expressions of place and time in sentences
 Time Subject Verb  Object Place  Time 
  I have  breakfast in the kitchen 
  They  play handball in the gym every Monday
  My friend is swimming  in the pool 
 Every Saturday Peter watches TV at home 
Pronunciation of 's'